APES Sem 2 2021-2022

    APES Sem2

    Housekeeping items:

    • Syllabus reminder: FIRST missed homework is dropped
    • HW fixed at 20% (no effective change for you)
    • Please bring iPads to class
    The biggest challenges your generation will face are sustainability, pollution/climate change and resource constraints
    Recall: energy->water->food->culture
    In semester one, we learned about the building blocks of these concepts.
    In semester two, you will see them integrate more and more...

    Europeans -> The New World
    Earth 2022 -> Mars

    "go west young man"

    Sustainability 2022: Semester two

    1. Conservation/Land use
    2. Energy
    3. Pollution/climate change
    How can you describe a round staircase to someone without using your hands?
    How can you describe deep nature to someone who has never seen it?

    National parks: positive, motivated by joy of the wilderness and nature
    Sustainability/climate change: negative, based on fear
    Tito: "the climate crisis is the biggest business opportunity in the history of mankind"

    Land Use: Chapter 10, modules 29-30
    Homework: Chapter 10 PQ and chapter questions

    Three main points: Living together, thinking of forever...
    1. Tragedy of the Commons
    2. Conservation movement
    3. Urban Sprawl

    email: GPS ranching-why is this closer to pre-contact buffalo herds?

    Tragedy of the commons (old idea, new article) 1968 Garret Harding KNOW THIS...
    An old 1833 concept from farming villages, article updated in 1968 this to include rivers, streams, ocean, air...

    Econ students may know this one:
    Externalized costs, externality: shedding financial responsibility for your impact the the whole
    e.g. Minamata: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamata_disease

    Conservation movement: Important peeps
    Ralph Waldo Emerson-"Nature" "behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present" 1837

    Henry David Thoreau-Walden "truth in nature and wilderness over the deceits of urban civilization". 1845

    Ansel Adams: Photographer championed the National Parks: 1920-1980

    "More than any other artist of the century, he would help transform the meaning of "wilderness" in America and change what people thought and felt about their own land"

    "it's a place that you step into, and you don't know what's going to happen, a place that can surprise you, it's a place where you are small, where being small is not a bad thing, where being small is actually a wonderful thing"
    -Carl Pope, Sierra Club

    "...the world is beautiful, that humanity is part of this larger world, that the concerns of the moment are part but not separate from a larger system of forces that that connect us to all of creation"
    Jonathan Spaulding, Biographer

    Question: How did his photographs change the awareness of the public? People usually care about what they know...

    Aldo Leopold-environmental ethics, wildlife management, conservation, Sand County Almanac (Wisconsin)

    John Muir-started the Sierra Club: "wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity and vivifies the spirit"

    Rachel Carson-silent spring DDT (persistent pesticide, weakens bird egg shells), 1963:

    MSY: maximum sustainable yield: max renewable output without compromising future
    See: native peoples: "seventh son of seventh son"
    Also: "Sustainability = thinking about forever"
    See diagram in chapter, greatest growth is at 50% of carrying capacity (there's that word again!)

    Protected lands:

    Click for full-size image

    Public lands: often victim of economic predation (e.g. Burma illegal logging)
    Other side: NRDC and others, purchase lands to protect them from predatory practices (e.g. Amazon basin)
    In the US: National Parks are one example of a national recognition of several things:
    1. Spiritual/psychological benefit to nature
    2. Preservation of resources for future generations
    3. Recreation
    4. Habitat preservation for species (can be land, ocean, islands, etc.)

    See also Amboseli in Kenya, Serengeti in Tanzania (Tanganyika+Zanzibar), Kruger park in S. Africa (Afrikaans)
    Public Lands
    In the US, we classify public lands as
    Rangelands-open range, enables some ranching with leases
    National forests-old growth and new growth, limited forestry
    National parks-national treasures, limits on visitors, infrastructure (e.g. Denali)
    National wildlife refuges-usually associated with an endangered species or transit/migration path (e.g. wolves)
    Wilderness areas-no development, often noise abatement as well (think of helicopters in Waipio or Haleakala)

    We have several of these here in Hawaii:
    Kilauea Volcano (Madame Pele)
    Haleakala ("House of the sun")
    Honokohau ("City of Refuge")
    Pearl Harbor
    Pu'u Kohola (Whale Heiau)
    Papa hanau moku a kea-Northwest Hawai'ian Islands NWHI

    Federal lands: owned by the people, but can be leased to individuals
    Click for full-size image

    Two ethics are in competition:
    Resource conservation ethic-maximum use based on greatest good for everyone, usually preservation
    Multiple use lands-designated lands for grazing, timber, minerals, leased to individuals or companies for profit

    Land Management in the US:
    BLM: Bureau of land management
    Grazing, ranching, monitors rangeland health, erosion

    USFS: Us Forest Service
    Manges timber harvesting, where, how, what trees
    Old growth vs. new growth, replanting, clear cut?

    FSC: Forest stewardship council:
    FSC certification: no clear cut, no damage to land, replanting, selective cutting, underbrush considerations
    HUGE debate over underbrush, USFS believes in regular forest fires to deplete the amount of underbrush (as in nature)
    See also California and Australia wildfires: drought, no regular fires, buildup of underbrush
    See Yellowstone fire of 1988-result of overgrowth of underbrush

    Forests: clear cut vs. selective cut
    FSC wood-how different?
    Fire management: Yellowstone fire 1988
    USFS prefers many small fires, removing flammable underbrush

    NPS: National park service
    Manages parks for recreation, multiple use ethic, preservation of timber, minerals and "natural curiosities"
    Also significant native peoples monuments (see above)

    FWS: Fish and wildlife service
    Manages fishing and hunting on all public lands

    Know these:
    BLM: Bureau of Land Management
    USFS: US Forest Service
    NPS: National Park Service
    FWS: Fish and Wildlife Service

    NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (why then?) mandates an EIS for all development
    EIS (environmental impact statements) are new standard for any project
    ESA endangered species act-often brought in where development could impact ES

    Urban development--------------------------
    Urban sprawl:
    Click for full-size image
    Note impact of autos post WWII on this...

    Solution: Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) ex. Portland, OR
    UGB (Urban Growth Boundary)-see Portland
    Prevents Urban Sprawl (richer folks move to the suburbs, commute, need parking, city dies from the inside, food deserts, etc.)
    Portland Example of urban planning:
    Tom McCall Governor of Oregon, 1967-1975
    Charlie Hales Mayor of Portland 2013-2017


    e2: Portland sense of place

    e2: The green apple


    /groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?tag=hotlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?tag=hotWhat’s HotHotListHot!?tag=hot6/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/HotListadminadmin2020-08-19 15:43:59+00:002020-08-19 15:43:59updated30adminadmin2011-09-08 21:36:21+00:002011-09-08 21:36:21updated29adminadmin2011-08-24 23:20:40+00:002011-08-24 23:20:40updated28adminadmin2011-08-24 22:42:36+00:002011-08-24 22:42:36updated27adminadmin2011-08-22 02:41:09+00:002011-08-22 02:41:09updated26adminadmin2011-08-22 02:40:02+00:002011-08-22 02:40:02updated25adminadmin2011-08-21 20:39:11+00:002011-08-21 20:39:11updated24adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:42+00:002011-08-21 20:30:42updated23adminadmin2011-08-21 20:30:13+00:002011-08-21 20:30:13updated22adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:48+00:002011-08-21 20:25:48updated21adminadmin2011-08-21 20:25:18+00:002011-08-21 20:25:18updated20adminadmin2011-08-21 00:22:12+00:002011-08-21 00:22:12updated19adminadmin2011-08-21 00:18:56+00:002011-08-21 00:18:56updated18adminadmin2011-08-21 00:15:43+00:002011-08-21 00:15:43updated17adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:37+00:002011-08-21 00:12:37updated16adminadmin2011-08-21 00:12:02+00:002011-08-21 00:12:02updated15adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:41+00:002011-08-20 23:59:41updated14Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:38+00:002011-08-20 23:59:38addTag13Added tag - conservationadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:32+00:002011-08-20 23:59:32addTag12Added tag - critical thinkingadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:19+00:002011-08-20 23:59:19addTag11Added tag - ch1adminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:08+00:002011-08-20 23:59:08addTag10Added tag - sustainabilityadminadmin2011-08-20 23:59:05+00:002011-08-20 23:59:05addTag9adminadmin2011-08-20 20:47:39+00:002011-08-20 20:47:39updated8adminadmin2011-08-20 20:46:15+00:002011-08-20 20:46:15updated7adminadmin2011-08-20 20:43:07+00:002011-08-20 20:43:07updated6adminadmin2011-08-20 19:14:13+00:002011-08-20 19:14:13updated5adminadmin2011-08-20 19:11:26+00:002011-08-20 19:11:26updated4adminadmin2011-08-20 18:59:57+00:002011-08-20 18:59:57updated3adminadmin2011-08-20 18:56:59+00:002011-08-20 18:56:59updated2First createdadminadmin2010-11-07 01:41:28+00:002010-11-07 01:41:28created1wiki2020-08-19T15:43:59+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcomeFalseCh01 Overview/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/welcome/Ch01_Overview.htmladmin30 updatesCh01 Overview Welcome to our APES wiki. You should be able to do the following after logging in with your account: To create a new page, click the ...Falseadmin2020-08-19T15:43:59+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:03+00:002013-02-05 02:24:03updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:24:02+00:002013-02-05 02:24:02addTag3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:05:35+00:002013-02-05 02:05:35updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:03:35+00:002013-02-05 02:03:35created1wiki2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8FalseEnergy notes/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/394a8/Energy_notes.htmladmin4 updatesEnergy notes Week of 2.4.13: energy wrap-up e2 video: coal vs. nuclear in class AP exams: FRQ 2002.1 2004.2 2006.1 2007.2 2008.1 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:24:03+00:00adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:20+00:002013-02-05 02:23:20updated6Added tag - hotadminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:18+00:002013-02-05 02:23:18addTag5adminadmin2013-02-05 02:23:12+00:002013-02-05 02:23:12updated4adminadmin2013-02-05 02:21:48+00:002013-02-05 02:21:48updated3adminadmin2013-02-05 02:20:26+00:002013-02-05 02:20:26updated2First createdadminadmin2013-02-05 02:06:00+00:002013-02-05 02:06:00created1wiki2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360bFalseFeb-May plan/groups/apenvironmentalscience/wiki/c360b/FebMay_plan.htmladmin6 updatesFeb-May plan 1. conclusion of energy chapters (see previous wiki) 2. GCC AP questions FRQ: 2006.2 2005.3 2005.4 2007.3 ...Falseadmin2013-02-05T02:23:20+00:00adminadmin2012-03-07 05:53:55+00:002012-03-07 05:53:55updated14adminadmin2012-03-07 05:43:38+00:002012-03-07 05:43:38updated13adminadmin2012-03-07 05:41:35+00:002012-03-07 05:41:35updated12adminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:57+00:002012-03-07 05:38:57updated11Added tag - hotadminadmin2012-03-07 05:38:55+00:002012-03-07 05:38:55addTag10adminadmin2012-03-07 05:36:47+00:002012-03-07 05:36:47updated9adminadmin2012-03-07 05:22:26+00:002012-03-07 05:22:26updated8adminadmin2012-03-07 05:20:01+00:002012-03-07 05:20:01updated7adminadmin2012-03-07 05:18:58+00:002012-03-07 05:18:58updated6adminadmin2012-03-07 04:58:55+00:002012-03-07 04:58:55updated5adminadmin2012-03-07 04:57:33+00:002012-03-07 04:57:33updated4adminadmin2012-03-07 04:56:53+00:002012-03-07 04:56:53updated3adminadmin2012-03-07 04:54:20+00:002012-03-07 04:54:20updated2First createdadminadmin2012-03-07 04:53:33+00:002012-03-07 04:53:33created1weblog2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030FalseGreen Apple/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/de030/Green_Apple.htmladmin14 updatesGreen Apple Team, Please watch this video about NYC: Trailer: http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/101_the_green_apple_trailer.html On the server: http://physics.hpa...Falseadmin2012-03-07T05:53:55+00:00adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:24+00:002011-09-13 19:08:24updated4Added tag - hotadminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:22+00:002011-09-13 19:08:22addTag3adminadmin2011-09-13 19:08:10+00:002011-09-13 19:08:10updated2First createdadminadmin2011-09-13 19:04:30+00:002011-09-13 19:04:30created1weblog2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecddFalseQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds/groups/apenvironmentalscience/weblog/4ecdd/Questions_for_Wednesday_wiki_adds.htmladmin4 updatesQuestions for Wednesday, wiki adds Team, I'd like to try something for class tomorrow: each of you to create a question from chapter 3, and email it to me by this evening (Tuesday). Pl...Falseadmin2011-09-13T19:08:24+00:00hot/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/index.rss?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomelist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/search/?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcomeRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdates?sort=modifiedDate&kind=all&sortDirection=reverse&excludePages=wiki/welcome0/groups/apenvironmentalscience/sidebar/RecentChangesListmodifiedDateallRecent ChangesRecentChangesListUpdateswiki/welcomeNo recent changes.reverse5searchlist/groups/apenvironmentalscience/calendar/Upcoming EventsUpcomingEventsListEvents1Getting events…